§ Linked Verifiable Presentation v0.3.0

Specification Status: Draft

Latest Draft: identity.foundation/linked-vp

Editors:

Jan Christoph Ebersbach (identinet)

Others?

Authors:

Brian Richter (Aviary Tech)

Markus Sabadello (Danube Tech)

Others?

Participate:

GitHub repo

File a bug

Commit history


§ Abstract

Verifiable Credentials are designed to be shared between entities. How this is done via private communication channels is specified by protocols like [DIDComm] and [OIDC4VC]. This document complements the private communication channel by defining how to share, discover and retrieve Verifiable Credentials publicly via a service entry in a “DID Document”. It is worth noting that incorporating private presentations should be relied on more frequently for enhanced privacy and security, rather than solely depending on public methods.

The Verifiable Credentials specification supports multiple different identifiers. This specification does NOT specify how to publish Verifiable Credentials for other valid identifiers apart from DIDs. Furthermore, this specification does NOT specify how Verifiable Credentials are created, modified or deleted at a service endpoint.

§ Use Cases

This section is non-normative.

The contributors to this specification provided the following incomplete list of use cases that appeal to them:

§ Status of This Document

Linked Verifiable Presentation is a draft specification under development within the Decentralized Identity Foundation (DIF), and designed to incorporate the requirements and learnings from related work of the most active industry players into a shared specification that meets the collective needs of the community. This spec is regularly updated to reflect relevant changes, and we encourage active engagement on GitHub (see above) and other mediums (e.g. DIF) where this work is being done.

§ Terminology

This section is non-normative

This section defines terms used in this specification.

Term Definition
Decentralized Identifier (DID) A globally unique persistent identifier that does not require a centralized registration authority and is often generated and/or registered cryptographically and is defined by [DID-CORE].
DID Controller Entity that is authorized to make changes to the contents of a DID Document. [DID-CORE].
DID Document A set of data describing the DID subject, service and verification methods, that the DID subject or a DID delegate can use to authenticate itself and prove its association with the DID. [DID-CORE].
DID Method A definition of how a specific DID scheme implementeds the precise operations by which DIDs are created, resolved and deactivated and DID documents are written and updated. [DID-SPEC-REGISTRIES]
Verifiable Credential A cryptographically secure mechanism for expressing credentials like driver’s licenses on the web. It is defined by [VC-DATA-MODEL].
Verifiable Presentation A way to combine and present credentials. It is defined by [VC-DATA-MODEL].

§ Linked Verifiable Presentation Service Endpoint

To enable the public discovery of verifiable presentations and verifiable credentials for a DID, there must exist a DID Document mechanism for expressing locations where verifiable presentations MAY be located. To that end, the following section codifies the LinkedVerifiablePresentation service endpoint. The endpoint allows a DID controller to publish and link verifiable presentations with verifiable credentials that SHALL be publicly associated with the DID. Presentations referenced within the LinkedVerifiablePresentation endpoint descriptor can then be crawled by verifying parties to locate and verify any presentation resources that may exist.

§ Linked Verifiable Presentation

LinkedVerifiablePresentation endpoint descriptors are JSON objects composed as follows:

§ Example: DID Document with LinkedVerifiablePresentation Service Endpoints

{
  "@context": [
    "https://www.w3.org/ns/did/v1",
    "https://identity.foundation/linked-vp/contexts/v1"
  ],
  "id": "did:example:123",
  "verificationMethod": [{
    "id": "did:example:123#_Qq0UL2Fq651Q0Fjd6TvnYE-faHiOpRlPVQcY_-tA4A",
    "type": "JsonWebKey2020",
    "controller": "did:example:123",
    "publicKeyJwk": {
      "kty": "OKP",
      "crv": "Ed25519",
      "x": "VCpo2LMLhn6iWku8MKvSLg2ZAoC-nlOyPVQaO3FxVeQ"
    }
  }],
  "service": [
    {
      "id": "did:example:123#foo",
      "type": "LinkedVerifiablePresentation",
      "serviceEndpoint": ["https://bar.example.com/verifiable-presentation.jsonld"]
    },
    {
      "id": "did:example:123#baz",
      "type": "LinkedVerifiablePresentation",
      "serviceEndpoint": "ipfs://bafybeihkoviema7g3gxyt6la7vd5ho32ictqbilu3wnlo3rs7ewhnp7lly/verifiable-presentation.jwt"
    }
  ]
}

§ Example: Linked Verifiable Presentation Resource

Linked verifiable presentation with a credential that describes an organization.

§ JSON-LD Format

{
  "@context": [
    "https://www.w3.org/2018/credentials/v1"
  ],
  "holder": "did:example:123",
  "type": [
    "VerifiablePresentation"
  ],
  "verifiableCredential": [
    {
      "@context": [
        "https://www.w3.org/2018/credentials/v1",
        {
          "schema": "https://schema.org/"
        }
      ],
      "issuer": "did:example:123",
      "issuanceDate": "2024-02-08T18:38:46+01:00",
      "expirationDate": "2029-02-08T18:38:46+01:00",
      "type": [
        "VerifiableCredential",
        "schema:Organization"
      ],
      "credentialSubject": {
        "id": "did:example:123",
        "schema:legalName": "Example LLC",
        "schema:telephone": "+1 23456 789",
        "schema:taxID": "123456789",
        "schema:location": {
          "@type": " PostalAddress",
          "schema:addressCountry": "Example Country",
          "schema:addressRegion": "Example Region",
          "schema:addressLocality": "Example City",
          "schema:postalCode": "12345",
          "schema:streetAddress": "1 Example Street"
        }
      },
      "proof": {
        "type": "Ed25519Signature2018",
        "created": "2024-02-08T17:38:46Z",
        "verificationMethod": "did:example:123#_Qq0UL2Fq651Q0Fjd6TvnYE-faHiOpRlPVQcY_-tA4A",
        "proofPurpose": "assertionMethod",
        "jws": "eyJhbGciOiJFZERTQSIsImI2NCI6ZmFsc2UsImNyaXQiOlsiYjY0Il19..qD1a-op-GWkvzI5LaAXqJhJv-9WCSTgtEUzUvDeuiaUSDWpVUh14x5TUbGNvmx1xZ0fEf5eWZWoJ-2dogDpmBQ"
      }
    }
  ],
  "id": "https://bar.example.com/verifiable-presentation.jsonld",
  "proof": {
    "type": "Ed25519Signature2018",
    "created": "2024-02-08T17:38:46Z",
    "verificationMethod": "did:example:123#_Qq0UL2Fq651Q0Fjd6TvnYE-faHiOpRlPVQcY_-tA4A",
    "proofPurpose": "assertionMethod",
    "jws": "eyJhbGciOiJFZERTQSIsImI2NCI6ZmFsc2UsImNyaXQiOlsiYjY0Il19..6_k6Dbgug-XvksZvDVi9UxUTAmQ0J76pjdrQyNaQL7eVMmP_SUPZCqso6EN3aEKFSsJrjDJoPJa9rBK99mXvDw"
  }
}

§ JSON Web Token Format

eyJhbGciOiJFZERTQSIsImtpZCI6ImRpZDpleGFtcGxlOjEyMyNfUXEwVUwyRnE2NTFRMEZqZDZUdm5ZRS1mYUhpT3BSbFBWUWNZXy10QTRBIiwidHlwIjoiJ3ZwK2xkK2p3dCcifQ.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.HBDsrOtJ2n3XU7JgfwXX1JyDpLApHssN4EKaM5ggrOqYSNw09C3BnS78ztwTJNmHQVKEyEOBdZlp6mziT4LQBw

Example of the decoded JWT Header:

{
  "alg": "EdDSA",
  "kid": "did:example:123#_Qq0UL2Fq651Q0Fjd6TvnYE-faHiOpRlPVQcY_-tA4A",
  "typ": "'vp+ld+jwt'"
}

Example of decoded JWT Payload:

{
  "sub": "did:example:123",
  "iss": "did:example:123",
  "nbf": 1708934977,
  "iat": 1708934977,
  "exp": 1866787777,
  "@context": [
    "https://www.w3.org/2018/credentials/v1"
  ],
  "holder": "did:example:123",
  "type": [
    "VerifiablePresentation"
  ],
  "verifiableCredential": [
    "eyJhbGciOiJFZERTQSIsImtpZCI6ImRpZDpleGFtcGxlOjEyMyNfUXEwVUwyRnE2NTFRMEZqZDZUdm5ZRS1mYUhpT3BSbFBWUWNZXy10QTRBIiwidHlwIjoiJ3ZjK2xkK2p3dCcifQ.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.oQfIE_nJFrircH-KS2cjFYeZ450x0R-OZVudEzVlVl3EE1Y4lxAnbv0P-GPOSn34OeydbtQ6r96G1tDOW0R3Cw"
  ],
  "id": "https://bar.example.com/verifiable-presentation.jsonld"
}

Example of decoded VC JWT Header:

{
  "alg": "EdDSA",
  "kid": "did:example:123#_Qq0UL2Fq651Q0Fjd6TvnYE-faHiOpRlPVQcY_-tA4A",
  "typ": "'vc+ld+jwt'"
}

Example of decoded VC JWT Payload:

{
  "sub": "did:example:123",
  "iss": "did:example:123",
  "nbf": 1708934977,
  "iat": 1708934977,
  "exp": 1866787777,
  "@context": [
    "https://www.w3.org/2018/credentials/v1",
    {
      "schema": "https://schema.org/"
    }
  ],
  "issuer": "did:example:123",
  "issuanceDate": "2024-02-26T09:09:37+01:00",
  "expirationDate": "2029-02-26T09:09:37+01:00",
  "type": [
    "VerifiableCredential",
    "schema:Organization"
  ],
  "credentialSubject": {
    "id": "did:example:123",
    "schema:legalName": "Example LLC",
    "schema:telephone": "+1 23456 789",
    "schema:taxID": "123456789",
    "schema:location": {
      "@type": " PostalAddress",
      "schema:addressCountry": "Example Country",
      "schema:addressRegion": "Example Region",
      "schema:addressLocality": "Example City",
      "schema:postalCode": "12345",
      "schema:streetAddress": "1 Example Street"
    }
  }
}

§ Privacy Considerations

This section is non-normative

Since this specification is designed to make verifiable data about a DID publicly discoverable, privacy implications are important to consider. The publication of verifiable data about a DID is a voluntary decision by the credential holder and requires an update of the DID document that is under the control of the DID controller. Therefore, the publication of verifiable data is a user-centric decision and upholds the principles of Privacy by Design PRIVACY-BY-DESIGN.

This specification does not recommend the publication of verifiable data about the holder’s DID by a third party, for example by an issuer or verifier.

§ Spectrum of Privacy

This section is non-normative

Verifiable Credentials [VC-DATA-MODEL] accommodate a wide range of privacy levels from pseudonymous to strongly identifiable. The Linked Verifiable Presentation specification strives to support the full privacy spectrum and does not take philosophical positions on the correct level of anonymity for any specific link. The following sections provide guidance for implementers who want to avoid specific scenarios that are hostile to privacy.

§ Personally Identifiable Information

This section is non-normative

DID documents and the verifiable credentials data model are highly structured. It is expected that any linked verifiable presentation and credential will be indexed. In addition, any verifiable credential must contain the identifier of the issuer that could also be de-anonymized and tracked by the publication of the credential. Therefore, holders are RECOMMENDED not to publish verifiable credentials that contain personally identifiable data or data that can be used to correlate and track them or the issuer.

§ Selective Disclosure

This section is non-normative

A holder might want to withhold information that is part of a Verifiable Credential they want to publish. Issuers are RECOMMENDED to support selective disclosure in issued credentials to grant holders the ability to make fine-grained decisions about the information that will be publicly available.

§ Security Considerations

This section is non-normative

§ Acceptable Use

This section is non-normative

A holder has the power to publish any verifiable credential they are holding. Before including a credential in a linked verifiable presentation the holder is RECOMMENDED to consider the constraints that are imposed by the issuer.

Issuers are RECOMMENDED to utilize the mechanisms provided by the verifiable credentials data model [VC-DATA-MODEL] to express constraints for issued credentials. For example, the properties expirationDate and termsOfUse can be used to control or limit the public linking of credentials.

§ Limiting Validity of Verifiable Presentations

This section is non-normative

Linked Verifiable Presentations are accessible and verifiable by anyone, and they might be accessible at the given URL indefinitely. A holder might therefore desire to limit the validity of a presentation. This can be achieved by utilizing the expires property that is an optional element of proof property as specified by [VC-DATA-INTEGRITY] for presentations in JSON-LD format. Respectively, the property exp can be used for presentations in JWT format [RFC7519].

§ Protection of Linked Presentations

This section is non-normative

Unlike the interactive exchange of credentials between holder and verifier, linked verifiable presentations are statically linked and published by the holder. Any entity that knows the holder’s DID is able to discover, access and verify the linked presentations without interaction between holder and verifier. This flow requires additional caution from the holder to ensure integrity, authenticity and timeliness of linked presentations. The security properties nonce, challenge, and domain, that are useful for interactive challenge-response protocols as specified by verifiable credential data [VC-DATA-INTEGRITY], can not be used to secure linked presentations. Therefore, it is recommended that the holder signs every linked presentations cryptographically. In addtion, the use of mechanisms for protecting the integrity of the linked presentations’ content is recommended, e.g. hashlinks [CRYPTOGRAPHIC-HASHLINKS].

§ Example

Hashlink protected links to presentations:

{
  "@context": [
    "https://www.w3.org/ns/did/v1",
    "https://identity.foundation/linked-vp/contexts/v1"
  ],
  "id": "did:example:123",
  "verificationMethod": [{
    "id": "did:example:123#_Qq0UL2Fq651Q0Fjd6TvnYE-faHiOpRlPVQcY_-tA4A",
    "type": "JsonWebKey2020",
    "controller": "did:example:123",
    "publicKeyJwk": {
      "kty": "OKP",
      "crv": "Ed25519",
      "x": "VCpo2LMLhn6iWku8MKvSLg2ZAoC-nlOyPVQaO3FxVeQ"
    }
  }],
  "service": [
    {
      "id": "did:example:123#foo",
      "type": "LinkedVerifiablePresentation",
      "serviceEndpoint": ["https://bar.example.com/verifiable-presentation.jsonld?hl=z3aq31uzgnZBuWNzUB"]
    },
    {
      "id": "did:example:123#baz",
      "type": "LinkedVerifiablePresentation",
      "serviceEndpoint": "ipfs://bafybeihkoviema7g3gxyt6la7vd5ho32ictqbilu3wnlo3rs7ewhnp7lly/verifiable-presentation.jwt?hl=z8guWNzUBnZBu3aq31"
    }
  ]
}

§ Verification of Linked Presentations

This section is non-normative

Independent of the successful verification of linked presentations, verifiers should note that a linked verifiable presentation only proves control over the holder’s DID at the time of link creation. Verifiers SHOULD NOT grant access solely based on a linked presentation and SHOULD in addition launch a separate interactive request to receive proof of control over the holder’s DID. Furthermore, verifiers SHOULD ensure that the holder’s DID is referenced as subject in every verifiable credential to establish whether the credential applies to the holder.

§ Conformance

As well as sections marked as non-normative, all authoring guidelines, diagrams, examples, and notes in this specification are non-normative. Everything else in this specification is normative.

The keywords MAY, MUST, MUST NOT, and SHOULD in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all capitals, as shown here.

Implementations MUST comply with relevant normative statements in DID Configuration Resource Verification.

§ References

§ Normative References

DID-CORE
Decentralized Identifiers (DIDs) v1.0. Drummond Reed; Manu Sporny; Markus Sabadello; Dave Longley; Christopher Allen; Jonathan Holt; 2020-09-07. Status: WD.
DID-SPEC-REGISTRIES
DID Specification Registries. Orie Steele; Manu Sporny; 2020-06-18. Status: NOTE.
RFC3986
Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax. T. Berners-Lee; R. Fielding; L. Masinter; 2005-01. Status: Internet Standard.
VC-DATA-MODEL
Verifiable Credentials Data Model 1.0. Manu Sporny; Grant Noble; Dave Longley; Daniel Burnett; Brent Zundel; 2019-11-19. Status: REC.

§ Informative References

Cryptographic Hyperlinks. M. Sporny; L. Rosenthal; 2021. Status: Internet-Draft
DID-CONFIGURATION
Well Known DID Configuration. Daniel Buchner; Orie Steele; Tobias Looker; 2023. Status: Working Group Approved.
DIDCOMM-MESSAGING
DIDComm Messaging. Sam Curren; Tobias Looker; Oliver Terbu; 2023-11-09. Status: Editor's Draft.
OPENID-4-VERIFIABLE-CREDENTIAL-ISSUANCE
OpenID for Verifiable Credential Issuance. T. Lodderstedt; K. Yasuda; T. Looker; 2023-02-03. Status: WD.
PRIVACY-BY-DESIGN
Privacy by Design. Ann Cavoukian. Information and Privacy Commissioner. 2011.
VC-DATA-INTEGRITY
Verifiable Credential Data Integrity. Manu Sporny; Dave Longley; Greg Bernstein; Dmitri Zagidulin; Sebastian Crane; 2023-11-21. Status: Candidate Recommendation.

RFC2119
Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels. S. Bradner; 1997-03. Status: Best Current Practice.
RFC7519
JSON Web Token (JWT). M. Jones; J. Bradley; N. Sakimura; 2015-05. Status: Proposed Standard.
RFC8174
Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC 2119 Key Words. B. Leiba; 2017-05. Status: Best Current Practice.

§ Acknowledgements

We thank the Decentralized Identity Foundation and the Identity and Discovery working group for their support in this specification.

§ Appendix

§ Simliar Specifications

The following specification are providing similar functionality:

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